Origin and Diffusion of English:
-A language originates at a particular place and diffuses to other
locations through the migration of its speakers.
-English is spoken by one-half billion people, more than any language
except for Mandarin Chinese.
-Mandarin speakers are clustered in China, while English speakers are
distributed around the world.
-English is an official language in forty-two countries.
-Two billion people -- one third of the world -- live in a country where
English is an official language, EVEN IF...they cannot speak it.
-The distribution of the English language exists, because the colonists from
England migrated with their language when they established the U.S. colonies.
-English became the principal language of North America, after England
defeated France in a battle to dominate the North American colonies during
the eighteenth century.
-Similarly, the British took control of Ireland in the seventeenth century,
South Asia in the mid-eighteenth century, the South Pacific in the late
eighteenth and early nineteenth century, and Southern Africa in the
late nineteenth century.
^^^In each case, English became the official language.
Dialects of English:
-A dialect is a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive
vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
-When speakers of a language migrate to other locations, various dialects
of that language to develop.
-In a language with multiple dialects, one dialect may be recognized as the
standard language, which is a dialect that is well established and widely
recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and
-The dialect associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area, is
recognized in much of the English-speaking world as the standard form of
British speech. This speech, known as British Received Pronunciation (BRP),
is well-known, because it is commonly used by politicians, broadcasters, and actors.
Dialects in the United States:
-Dialects in United States exist, because of the differences in dialects among the
-Today, major dialect differences within the United States continue to exist,
primarily on the East Coast.
-These differences are obvious when listening to people from different areas pronounce
-The three major dialect regions along the East Coast include: Northern, Midlands,
Dialect-a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary,
spelling, and pronunciation.
Standard Language-a dialect that is well established and widely recognized as
the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication.
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)-commonly used by politicians, broadcasters,